Let’s review some genetic lingo first so we can all understand better the report.
The test that we are doing, checks for 37 different genetic markers found in the Y-Chromosome of males, in the area of the chromosome that we believe that does not code for functions in the cell. We call it “junk DNA”.
The place where these genetic markers are found in the Y-chromosome is called DYS which are the initials for Designated Y-chromosome Segment.
The genetic markers are of two types: the STR (Short Tandem Repeat) and the SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism).
The STR= is a short sequence of DNA, usually 3 -5 letters that represent the bases that form DNA, A (Adenine) or C (Cytosine) or T(Thymine) or G (Guanine). This short sequence is repeated several times along the Y-chromosome. For example ATT may be repeated 13 times ATT ATT ATT ATT ATT ATT ATT ATT ATT ATT ATT ATT ATT along the position DYS392 of the Y-Chromosome. So an example of the results of 16 genetic markers of the Y-DNA 37 markers test of the Egyptian Pharoh Tutankhamen looks like:
We call allele the number of STR repetitions that are found in the same DYS of different men. So we can see in the above example, in the area that I have highlighted in red that in the part of the Y-chromosome located at the DYS392 junction there is an STR (short tandem repeat) also called allele that is repeated 13 times.
These sequences of STR allows geneticist to “PREDICT” which of the 20 different haplogroups this man will fall under. There are 20 basic Y-chromosome types in the world, designated from letter A in the alphabet representing Africa all the way to T: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P Q, R, S, T. They are referred to as “the backbone” of the Y-chromosome division. Each point in the tree where a new letter division occurs is called an SNP.
SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism that in regular English language means that along the 60 million base pairs sequence of the DNA structure in the Y-chromosome, there was one nucleic acid basis that was changed for another. If you remember DNA is formed by a sequence of four nucleotides that we have designated letters for each. A – C – T — G
Now an SNP is for example only one of the bases, guanine that was changed for thymine in that point of the DNA. So instead of the sequence being AGGTCAAT, when you have the mutation in a single letter, the SNP, you will have ATGTCAAT.
So if you come up with the STR sequence for 16 genetic markers shown above the most likely is that that man is an R1b1a2…This is only a prediction, to confirm that the man is an R1b1a2, they have to check the SNP of that man and see if it is the same SNP mutation of the R1b1a2 group. In the FTDNA results chart you will see your results change from color red R1b1a2, predicted, to color green R1b1a2, confirmed.
Besides the 20 letters of the alphabet, there are subgroups of these letters designated with numbers and non-capital letters to refine further from which haplogroup this man belong to. For more information please review the articles of genetic memory I, II and III posted in the web page of Etz Yoseph: www.etzyoseph.org. Now we can proceed with this report from the Etz Yoseph Project.
There is a J1, that has been confirmed by doing the SNP backbone DNA test (which is an extra charge than the Y-’DNA 37 test, and in this case it was done by courtesy of FTDNA), which has the genetic marker of the Cohanim, the priest descendants of Aaron. He has matched six out of six of the STR’s Cohanim Model Haplotype.
We also have a J2, the most common Y-haplogroup found among the Jews in 2011, probably belonging to the tribe of Judah.
There has been Y-DNA results like: “I”2a”, “Q”, etc.., which we have not been able to place in one of the Israel tribes by faith, as we expected it… Remember in 2 Chronicles 30, The King of the House of Judah, Hezekiah, invited the remnant of the 10 Northern tribes to join him for the second month Passover. The Northern Kingdom of Israel had been partially removed from the land by the Assyrians. But some were left and these accepted the offer of Hezekiah and became part of the House of Judah…We find members from the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh, Asher, Issachar and Zebulun mentioned in 2 Chronicles 30, joining Judah. Now the House of Judah already had the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and part of Levi…So in total we have eight tribes that we should find today as Jews…Eight is exactly the results of the Y-haplogroups that we find among the Jews in 2011, from most common to least: J, E1b1b1, R1ba2, R1a, G, Q, T and “I”…Now, we have not been able to determine the matches between the eight tribes and the eight y-haplogroups, but with patience and trust in the Lord we carry on working on it.
But noticed that we are still missing five tribes: Ruben, Simeon, Gad, Dan and Naphtali that are not mentioned in the bible as ever joining the House of Judah…Except my attention was called to Simeon, that had original his land allotment with Judah (Joshua 19:1) and we are told that he joined Judah at one time 2 Chronicles 15:9. But we do not have any more reference that the tribe might have stayed with Judah. That means that their Y-Chromosome type may not be found among the House of Judah…but we should find them among the gentiles…By faith, there are a few Gadites that have come forward as possible belonging to the “I” Y-haplogroup…The other four tribes we keep on looking for them, knowing that they should surface among the nations.
More and more R1b1a2 results come up with the assertion that this is probably the Y-Chromosome haplogroup from the tribe of Ephraim; As it is the group with the largest number of members as prophesied in the bible in Genesis 48:19 that Ephraim will become the father of many Nations. The blessing of ” your descendants will be as numerous as the sand of the seas and the stars in the sky“ was given to Abraham (Genesis 15:5), passed down to Isaac (Genesis 26:4), Jacob (Genesis 32:12), Joseph (Genesis 48:4) and finally to Ephraim the son of Joseph (Genesis 48:19). We also read what the Lord tells us regarding the larger number of Ephraimites by Moses:
Deuteronomy 33:17 His glory is like a firstborn bull, And his horns like the horns of the wild ox; Together with them He shall push the peoples To the ends of the earth; They are the ten thousands of Ephraim, And they are the thousands of Manasseh.”
An interesting twist is that one of the members of Etz Yoseph called to my attention that King Tut, Tutankhamen, the Egyptian Pharaoh that lived approximately from 1341 – 1323 BC has the Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b1a2 and the geneticists were baffled with this finding. One reason is because according to the migration patterns of the human race, the group R1b1a2 is the most common Y-haplogroup of Western Europe. So how did an R1b1a2 got to Egypt over 2,300 years ago? And how did he get to a ruling position as a Pharaoh?
The DNA testing on the Pharaohs was done in 2010 by Zahi Hawass of Cairo. Not only did they find that King Tut was R1b1a2, but so was his father Pharoh Akhenaten also known as Amenhotep IV (1351-1334 BC), who interestingly abandoned polytheism and started monotheism in Egypt, worshiping exclusively the sun god, Aten. Also Pharoah Amenhotep III 1388-1351 BC is proven by DNA to be the grandfather of King Tut, meaning he must also be an R1b1a2. His reign was a period of artistic splendor and unprecedented prosperity… And this is where the DNA trail stops…We have three Pharaohs known to be R1a1b2 against all odds in a period of about 200 years after the Israelites have left the land of Egypt.
We know Ephraim the son of Yoseph was born in Egypt. The date is being disputed, but is very likely that Ephraim was born around 1900 BC, about 400 years before the Israelites Exodus from Egypt in about 1,500 BC. If Ephraim’s Y-chromosome is R1b1a2 it will make sense, just like many of you that are R1b1a2 have the blessings in the Bible given to Ephraim. We now can glimpse on the hypothesis on how this R1b Y-haplogroup got to Egypt in 1388 in Amenhotep III, King Tutankhamen’s grandfather.
It would shade more light into the equation if the Egyptians led by Dr. Zahi Hawass of Cairo would extract DNA from the bone marrow of the alleged father of Amenhotep III, which is Thutmose IV, the alleged great grandfather of Pharaoh Tutankhamen, and do the Y-37 DNA test to see if he also is R1b1a2. If the results of the Great grandfather Y-DNA were different, that would mean that a new Y-chromosome haplogroup was introduced in Egypt’s Royalty with Amenhotep III.
Even if the Egyptian scientists would do this study, it will be very difficult for us to get the information. Imagine that just the fact that King Tut and his father and grandfather belong to a Y-chromosome haplogroup most common in Europe brought such upheaval in the world. Their problem came up because of racial discrimination and some saying again that the Africans were ruled by the white Europeans… The information of the R1b1a2 haplogroup leaked out as a Discovery video that showed the STR sequence of King Tut was written down by some genetic lovers. And as they placed the sequence in the haplogroup predictor they were able to figured out that King Tut’s Y-haplogroup is R1b1a2.
You may watch the less than 3 minutes video of the DNA sequence of these three Pharaos at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bNmZQJsRjrc&feature=related
We can read the DNA sequence and the famous Discovery channel movie that revealed to the world King Tut’s Y-chromosome haplogroup in the European Union Times on the web: http://www.eutimes.net/2010/06/king-tuts-dna-is-western-european/
“On the Discovery Channel broadcast, which can be seen on the Discovery Channel website here, or if they pull it, on YouTube here (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bNmZQJsRjrc&feature=related), at approximately 1:53 into the video, the camera pans over a printout of DNA test results from King Tut.
Here is a brief explanation of the results visible in the video. It is a list of what is called Short Tandem Repeats (STRs).
STRs are repeated DNA sequences which are “short repeat units” whose characteristics make them especially suitable for human identification.
These STR values for 17 markers visible in the video are as follows:
DYS 19 – 14 (? not clear)
DYS 385a – 11
DYS 385b – 14
DYS 389i – 13
DYS 389ii – 30
DYS 390 – 24
DYS 391 – 11
DYS 392 – 13
DYS 393 – 13
DYS 437 – 14 (? not clear)
DYS 438 – 12
DYS 439 – 10
DYS 448 – 19
DYS 456 – 15
DYS 458 – 16
DYS 635 – 23
YGATAH4 – 11
You can play with the haplogroup predictor.
1) Go to www.etzyoseph.org
2) Click in the menu on the “haplogroup predictor”
3) Click on FTDNA order.
4) Plug in under each of the DYS the value given above.
5) Wallah! It comes out to be R1b on the right column.
Now, when we look at the birth events of Amenhotep III you see how it could be possible that he could have been the illegitimate son of Queen Mutenwiya and an Ephraimite…
History tells us that Mutenwiya was never acknowledged by her husband Pharaoh Thutmusa IV as having a position of honor among his wives… She lived in the shadow of Queen Nefirtari, the preferred royal wife, and later on, behind Queen Laret. The Pharaoh never made monuments or inscriptions honoring his lesser wife Mutenwiya, the mother of Amonhetep III.
All the inscriptions that we have of her were made by her son Amenhotep III. In the Luxor temple we can see one of those pictures where Mutenwiya receives a god Amun with the shape of her husband, Pharaoh Thutmusa IV, and conceives Amenhotep III…This depicts the divine conception of Amenhotep III and his birth as the result of a union of the god Amun and queen Mutenwiya.( ^ abc Tyldesley, Joyce. Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2006, p. 114. ISBN 0-500-05145-3).
Just replace the god Amun with an Ephraimite and this may be the most logical theory on how R1b1a2 may have been introduce into the royal lines of the Egyptians Pharaohs… In the meantime, while the previous story is just a hypothesis there is no speculation in the facts that all the R1b1a2 in the Etz Yoseph project have a physical family relationship with three of the most famous Egyptians Pharaohs: Tutankhamen, Amenhotep IV and Amenhotep III.
It is amazing what the Lord has revealed since we started the Etz Yoseph project and we pray that He will continue to lead us in the way and actions that we must take to pursue the findings of the 12 tribes of Israel… We ask that you pray to our heavenly Father in how He wants you to work on this project, because only with His children united, the Lord will provide answers. If you would like us to go to your congregation and explain what the projects is all about let us know and we will be honor to try and go, the Lord willing.
One of those things that the Lord has disclosed to us is the different light in which we can understand the Sacred Scriptures. As we end the study of Isaiah the Lord finishes the teachings through His wonderful prophet with the fact that YHVH will make Levites and priests from the Israelites that He has scattered among the gentiles…We close in awe to the undeserving love and mercy of our heavenly Father for His people Israel, the seed of physical descendants and also grafted in by faith in Messiah Yeshua of Nazareth.
Isaiah 66:20 And they will bring all your brothers, from all the nations, to my holy mountain in Jerusalem as an offering to the LORD–on horses, in chariots and wagons, and on mules and camels,” says the LORD. “They will bring them, as the Israelites bring their grain offerings, to the temple of the LORD in ceremonially clean vessels.21And I will select some of them also to be priests and Levites,” says the LORD.22 “As the new heavens and the new earth that I make will endure before me,” declares the LORD, “so will your name and descendants endure.
Brachot Ahavta Yeshua, (Blessings in the Love of Yeshua)
Alex Perdomo MD and Georgina Perdomo MD